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A Brief History of the Gap Theory of Creation


November 29, 2003

A Brief History of the Gap Theory of Creation

In the circle of Christian beliefs, concerning the creation of the earth and the universe, there are several different teachings. All agree God created the earth, but beliefs of how and when differ considerably. There are three primary views concerning the age of the earth. Most believe it is a very young planet, and that God created it mature (old) as he created man (Adam) mature. This group has the earth varying in age from 6000 to perhaps 12000 years. Then there is a group that believes a very long indefinite period of time passed between Genesis 1:1 and 1:3, varying from millions to billions of years, and that the creation account following Genesis 1:2 is a recreation, or reshaping, of what was made void and without form by Satan’s fall in Genesis 1:2. The third group believes in theistic evolution, saying God created things over a long period of time, with the Hebrew word “yom” for “day” being used to denote long epochs of time during the six days of Genesis creation. Now, having very briefly presented these different beliefs, PLEASE READ VERY CAREFULLY WHAT I AM ABOUT TO SAY NEXT!




In this Update I intend to present a brief history of what is known as “the gap theory.” It is not the intent and purpose of this report to elaborate on the various Scriptures and inductive reasoning processes put forward by many learned men in support of the basic hypothesis. It is primarily the purpose of this article to render a brief history of the gap theory from its inception into the ranks of Missionary Baptists. However, at least a very basic description of the proposition should be outlined before going into details about its history, and a short summary of the theory will be presented by Gaebelein from his Annotated Bible, where he states the following on pages 16 and 17 (BEGIN QUOTE BY GAEBELEIN):

“It is of the greatest importance to understand that the condition in which the earth (not the heavens) is described in the second verse is not how God created it in the beginning. Scripture itself tells us this. Read Isaiah 45:18. The Hebrew word for ‘without form’ is TOHU, which means ‘waste.’ ‘The earth was waste and void.’ But in the passage of Isaiah 45:18 we read, ‘He created it not a waste.’ The original earth passed through a great upheaval, a judgment swept over it, which in all probability must have occurred on account of the fall of that mighty one Lucifer, who fell by pride and became the Devil. The original earth, no doubt, was his habitation, and he had authority over it, which he still claims as the “prince of this world.” Luke 4:5,6 shows us this. The earth had become waste and void; chaos and darkness reigned. What that original earth was like we do not know, but we know that animal and vegetable life were in existence long before God began to restore the earth. The immense fossil beds prove this. But they likewise prove that man was not then on the earth. Between the first and second verses of the Bible there is that unknown time of millions of years which geology gets a glimpse of in studying the crust of the Earth.” (END QUOTE BY GAEBELEIN).

In order to present a truly representative history of the gap theory, it is first necessary to examine the soil of the times from when it first burst forth its blooms into the light of the nineteenth century. A bit of what we might call a “pre-bloom” time of say, 100 years, would present a picture of mankind beginning to unearth extensive “finds” of various kinds of fossil life. Graphic pictures of pre-historic creatures and plants began to be noticed in exposed rock surfaces, and even more startling were the underground finds of huge dinosaur forms that had once roamed the vast plains of earth. It was a time of great unrest in the minds of learned men who sought an answer to the apparent conflictions of these discoveries with a long accepted belief in a very young earth of some 6000 years.

Into this time of apparent contradiction with the long conceived idea of a young, God-created earth, stepped a brilliant Christian man of that day, the scientist, Georges Cuvier. Morris and Whitcomb, in their publication of “The Genesis Flood,” give the following statement concerning Cuvier: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“The man to whom we refer was Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), professor of comparative anatomy in the museum of natural history at Paris, and the founder of modern vertebrate paleontology – a man of immense learning and reputation. Cuvier’s opposition to flood geology was subtle, because he insisted the earth had been laid down by the flood. He also taught that the major fossil strata of the earth had been laid down by a series of great floods, separated by immense periods of time, and long before the creation of man.” (END QUOTE).

As in most theories, there were certain portions of Cuvier’s hypothesis that needed, over a period of time, to be modified to agree with later discoveries of climate and geological shifts of both life forms and the earth’s crust. Kruten, in his book, “The Age of the Dinosaurs,” as it pertains to the discovery of dinosaur remains in the Paris Basin, says of Cuvier: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“Georges Cuvier, working out the sequence in the Paris Basin, taught that the successive periods in the history of the world were invariably caused by a great catastrophe, wiping out most of the living beings when it occurred, whereupon new forms of life were created or migrated from other regions. The antithesis of catastropism is the principle of actualism or uniformitarianism.” (END QUOTE).

It was during Cuvier’s lifetime that the conflict between the theories of Pre-Adamic “Catastrophism” and “Uniformitarianism” spread across the civilized world. There were many theologians who lifted the flag in support of Curvier’s hypothesis of a long period of chaos and catastrophe before the first appearance of man. Some of these theologians were portrayed by Surburg in the book “Darwin, Evolution, and Creation,” where he wrote the following: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“In the nineteenth century George H. Pember, in his book, ‘Earth’s Earliest Ages,’ set forth the interpretation that a long period or ‘gap’ was to be reckoned with after Genesis 1:1. Pember is thus sometimes credited with the formulation of the ‘gap’ or ‘restitution’ theory. The possibility of a gap or long period of time after Genesis 1:1 has been held by a number of nineteenth century theologians, among then Hengstenberg (1802-69), famous Lutheran theologian at the University of Berlin; Franz Delitzsch (1813-90), professor of Old Testament at Erlangen, and by Boehme, Oetinger, F. Von Meyer, Stier, Keerl, Kurtz, and others.” (END QUOTE).

I shall have something to say about Surburg’s suggestion that Pember is the originator of the gap theory at a later time, but for now I would like to present as clear a picture as possible on the catastrophism theory advanced by Cuvier. To close our analysis of Curier’s idea, I will provide a quote from Wendt in his book, “Before the Deluge,” where he speaks of Cuvier’s theory as follows: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“According to Cuvier, the earth was shaken many times in its history by upheavals and cataclysms. Some of these were local events; in such cases they only annihilated life in the affected regions, so the new living beings drifted in from other regions and repopulated the devastated areas. In his principle work on paleontology, ‘Recherches Sur Les Ossements Fossiles,’ Curier stated: ‘Life on earth has been frequently interrupted by frightful events. Innumerable organisms have become the victims of such catastrophes. Invading waters have swallowed up the inhabitants of dry land; the sudden rise of the sea bottom has deposited aquatic animals on land. Their species have vanished forever; they have left behind only sparse remains, which the naturalist is currently striving to interpret.’ Cuvier did not exactly state that life on earth had been extinguished to finality, and then recreated by God in superior form; that theory was to be advanced by his successors.” (END QUOTE).

Concerning Cuvier’s belief concerning the existence of man during the time of the earth’s great catastrophes, Wendt flatly states: “Cuvier did not believe in the existence of man in primordial times.”

While I agree with Dr. Surburg’s statement that G.H. Pember is often credited with the formulation of the original gap theory, this has caused many who do not believe the gap theory to say it was only an answer to Charles Darwin’s famous book, The Origin of Species, published in 1859. However, this is completely false.

The weight of my research credits the original formulation of the gap theory to have originated from the lips of Dr. Thomas Chalmers, a noted gentleman of some renown, some 45 years before Darwin’s book was published. Whitcomb and Morris, in their book, “The Genesis Flood,” are correct in their assessment of the “earliest” appearance of the gap theory, of which they state as follows: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“As early as 1814, Cuvier’s views were being pronounced in England by Dr. Thomas Chalmers, who found room between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2 for this succession of pre-Adamic catastrophes and thus became the great popularizer of the now famous ‘Gap Theory.’ Many of the greatest geologists of this period, such as Adam Sedgwick, Rodgerick Murchison, and William Buckland, approved Cuvier’s theory because it seemed to offer an easy explanation of the fossil strata.” (END QUOTE).

It would seem reasonable that the 1810 pre-Adamic catastrophe theory of Cuvier would prompt an almost immediate searching of the Scriptures by diligent born-again believers in an attempt to find God’s linguistic answer to a scientific problem. I have always held that God’s word has the answers for the problems mankind faces in the interpretation of what it teaches. It seems quite reasonable to me that his word was used at that time to present a linguistic solution to a scientific dilemma. I believe the born-again believer who first discovered this linguistic revelation in Genesis was Dr. Thomas Chalmers, who began to expound it publicly “as early as 1814.” The character of this man reveals an inner nature that held the Bible inspired to the point of defending his beliefs openly. The following information concerning Dr. Chalmers, taken from The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, is quoted as follows. (BEGIN QUOTE).

“Chalmers, Thomas (1780-1847). Scottish minister. Born in Anstruther and educated at St. Andrews University, he was inducted to Kilmany Parish in 1803, and lectured part time at his University. He experienced evangelical conversion in 1811, and his ministerial and emphasis and activity were completely changed. He began to write for ‘The Christian Instructor,’ publication of which marked the turning of the tide in the moderate-evangelical encounter. In 1815 he was inducted to the Tron Church, Glasgow, and was heard by crowded congregations twice every Sunday. Glasgow reeled in shock when Chalmers left in 1823 to teach moral philosophy at St. Andrews’s University, but when he moved on to Edinburgh to teach philosophy, his friends were sure he had found his sphere. He became Moderator of the Evangelical Party in 1832, and thereafter the leader and symbol of the movement. During the next decade he championed the cause of church extension, building in six years some 216 churches, and raising 290,000 pounds, a fantastic amount for that day and time. After “The Disruption,” Chalmers became the Moderator of the Free Church Assembly, and professor of Theology in New College. His “Institutes of Theology” was published posthumously in 1849.” (END QUOTE).

The “Free Church Assembly” of which Chalmers became Moderator, was an Association of local free churches that made up what was known as The Free Church of Scotland. In order to understand Chalmer’s connection with the Association, the following quote from The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church is offered: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“Free Church of Scotland. Popularly known as ‘The Wee Free Church of Scotland.’ It represents the minority of the former Free Church of Scotland who refused to enter the union with the United Presbyterian Church to form the United Free Church of Scotland. The original Free Church was constituted in 1843 after “The Disruption,” when about one-third of the ministers and members seceded from the Church of Scotland rather than submit to what they considered to be state control of the local churches. Their leader, Dr. Thomas Chalmers, declared: ‘We quit a vitiated establishment and would rejoice in returning to a pure one.’” (END QUOTE).

Thomas Chalmers was certainly more than qualified to advance such a premise as the gap theory in the Genesis account of creation, possessing Doctors degrees in three disciplines, Bible Languages, the Sciences, and Divinity. Certain domestic calamities, and a severe illness of his own, opened up the fountains of his soul, and drew him closer to the Lord. So, when he was asked after this to prepare an article for an Encyclopedia in Edinburgh by Brewer, he commenced an extensive study of the evidences that Christianity was genuine, during which he became absolutely certain of Christ as Savior, and that the Bible was the veritable “Word of God.” After this, according to the Cyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, “He grew earnest, fervent, devout, and faithful to his pastoral duties.”

This reference bears testimony to a man who was an objective scientist that recognized the Bible as the “Word of God,” from which a linguistic answer could be provided to a scientific question. In a future Update, Lord willing, I will give a thorough exposition of the “Gap Theory” by Dr. Thomas Chalmers. But the purpose of this lengthy Update has been to present the history surrounding its origin, and to carry that history to the time when it first entered the ranks of Missionary Baptist churches. As outlined previously, it was not long before theological ideas began to form around the periphery of Culvier’s hypothesis on what is known as catastrophism. Some simply rejected it, some tried to adjust it, and still others linguistically interpreted Genesis 1:1,2 to provide a theological answer to a scientific hypothesis. The pattern is much the same today. Unbelieving scientists are providing scientific answers to creation. Some believing scientists are offering scientific answers to the creation. And theologians are arguing over interpretations as to how to interpret inspired Biblical words. As for myself, I believe Genesis 1:1, and I could care less how or when God created the heavens and the earth, I just know he did it. However, I will give you my opinion on the Genesis account of creation in a future Update, Lord willing.

So how did the Gap Theory get into Missionary Baptist work? A Dr. Henry Drummond, like Chalmers, was an evangelical minister of the Free Church of Scotland. He was born four years after Chalmers died. The parallelism in their lives, induced by almost being contemporaries, and Drummond’s following the doctrinal path of Chalmers, is quite evident in the following quote taken from the New International Dictionary of the Christian Church: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“Drummond, Henry (1551-1897). Scottish writer and evangelist. Born at Stirling, and educated at Edinburgh University, he was persuaded by D.L. Moody to suspend his theological course and to work with him in evangelistic campaigns during Moody’s first visit to Britain. After 1866 he taught Natural Science at the Free Church College in Glasgow, and in 1883 published the best seller, ‘Natural Law in the Spirit World.’ In 1884 he was ordained and became Professor of Theology in the college. He influenced many generations of students through his evangelistic work, visiting Australia in 1887 and the United States in 1890. His lectures at Boston were published as ‘The Ascent of Man’ in 1890. But his best known work was ‘The Greatest Thing in the World,’ which was a meditation on I Corinthians 13:13.” (END QUOTE).

Dr. Drummond has been mentioned because he is referenced by the man most responsible for the introduction of the Gap Theory into Missionary Baptist ranks, Dr. J. Louis Guthrie, who was one of the three founders of the Missionary Baptist Seminary in Little Rock, Arkansas. Dr. Guthrie, speaking of him in his book, “Christ in Creation,” says: “Drummond has written the nearest to a spiritual science, and consideration of all phases of life, in his ‘Natural Law in the Spiritual World,’ but his work is mostly from analogy.” Again, Dr. Guthrie speaks of Drummond in regard to his views on the doctrine of trichotomy, as he comments: “I am indebted to Drummond, Sabatier, Dr. Giorgio Bartoli and others for some help I have had in this trend of thought. They have given valuable suggestions to which I have fastened quite a train of thought.”

But it is not Drummond that gave us the gap theory, but a man whose ideas conflicted with Drummond on the theory of catastrophism before Adam, Dr. Giorgio Bartoli. After having researched many names quoted by Dr. Guthrie in his works, it appears evident to me that Dr. Guthrie was familiar with the viewpoints of both Drummond and Bartoli. And from the writings of Dr. Guthrie it is readily apparent he accepted and expounded the viewpoint of Dr. Bartoli. Dr. Guthrie speaks of him in his book, “Christ in Creation,” where he gives the following testimony of Bartoli: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“Dr. Bartoli in his little book, ‘The Biblical Story of Creation,’ makes this observation in the amazing statement, ‘even now, after the millenniums that our earth has existed, no simple bodies exist, only composite ones. The element is is an artificial product of man, which he extracts from the chemical combination of which it is part and parcel. It is not physical progress that prevails in the world, but degeneracy. Our creation is getting gradually older, poorer, and uglier; the earth moreover, is drying up constantly, becoming less habitable, and by degrees becoming a desert. The progressive decay and degeneration of the earth and man is a fact, beyond the possibility of a doubt. Not evolution, but involution, is the great law of the universe. Involution means the imperfect from the perfect, the simple from the composite, the immoral from the moral, ugliness from beauty, crime and vice from innocence, disorder from order, and death from life.’ This is the pronouncement of a man who is chemist and physicist, who has taught these sciences along with geology and biological science in many universities of Europe and Asia. He has lectured extensively in nearly all countries in Europe and the Americas, and knows language, philosophy, science, and theology in their practical phases. He writes in nearly every modern Occidental language. He is now Superintendent of Mines in Sardinia. His varied experiences have qualified him to speak with authority. His knowledge of literature, the sciences, theology, and philosophy can hardly be questioned.” (END QUOTE).

Dr. Bartoli, a contemporary of Drummond, picked up the standard left behind by Dr. Chalmers and spread its influence across the American and European continents. An excellent presentation of Dr. Bartoli’s concept of the pre-Adamic world catastrophe is given in his book, “The Biblical Story of Creation.”

Dr. L.D. Foreman, in his book, “The Bible in Eight Ages,” gives a lengthy quote from Dr. Bartoli’s book on pages 102 to 105. Speaking of the pre-Adamic fallen angels, Dr. Bartali writes as follows: (BEGIN QUOTE).

“Since they could accomplish nothing against God, these miserable creatures vented their malice upon the earth, where they fell in millions. That disastrous fall produced a world cataclysm. Our solar system was convulsed, disemboweled and reduced to chaos – confusion, darkness, and complete disorder prevailed.” (END QUOTE).

So, in summary, the thread of continuity that stretches from Missionary Baptists back to the birth of the Gap Theory in about 1814, began with a first stitch by Dr. Thomas Chalmers, rippled across the Atlantic on the wings of Dr. Giorgio Bartoli, and entered our ranks largely through the brilliant, fertile mind of Dr. J. Louis Guthrie.

I dedicated my third book, “The Key to the Bottomless Pit,” to Dr. Fred G. Stevenson, a rare man of God, who made this dullard think. Dr. Fred was, during his many years of teaching at the Little Rock Missionary Baptist Seminary, the best Hebrew teacher of his era among Missionary Baptist Seminary teachers of Hebrew in our ranks. Dr. J. Louis Guthrie suffered an early demise as a teacher at Little Rock, but Dr. Stevenson had tremendous influence on the many students he taught during his long tenure at the school. The only other Missionary Baptist preacher I ever knew that could speak slower than Fred was “Buddy” Pennington, a dear brother who, like Fred, has gone on to be with the Lord. Most of the graduates of the school during the fifties, sixties, and seventies, were avid proponents of the Gap Theory. Since that time a growing number of its graduates have advocated the “young earth” theory, held by the teachers who have followed the precepts advanced by the school of creation.


December 1, 2003

The Gap Theory and Associated Fall of Satan from Heaven

In Prophecy Update 148A I presented the history of the Gap Theory. In Prophecy Update 148B I presented the two basic Scriptures that are used to make the linguistic biblical case for its validity. Basically, the Gap Theory advocates that Satan was created by God as a sinless Archangel and placed over the material universe as its prince and protector, with countless number of angels under his authority to facilitate the tasks of the commission he had received from God. But Satan rebelled against the authority of his maker, and caused one-third of the angels to follow him in his rebellion, and they also fell from favor with their creator. I believe this rebellion occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, and changed God’s original creation of the earth in verse 1 to the desolate waste found in verse 2 (Please see Updates 148A & 148B).

Genesis 1:1,2 – In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. [2] And the earth was (became) without form (tohu), and void (bohu); and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

Our understanding of time, as finite human beings, is really incapable of grasping time as God views it. Peter alludes to this principle in his second epistle.

II Peter 3:8-12 – But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. [9] The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

I believe that perhaps as long a period of time as six billion years passed between Genesis 1:1 and 1:3, and that the verses from 1:3 onwards are about a restoring, a reconstruction, a reshaping, a remolding of God’s original creation, which was marred by the fall of Satan. I do not believe man ever existed upon the earth until the sixth day of the restoring of the earth by its creator. I believe Genesis 2:7 occurred on the sixth day of the remolding of God’s first creation.

Genesis 2:7 – And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

I believe that one of the reasons God created man was to place him over the creation he had assigned Satan as prince before his sin against God. But Adam also sinned, and lost his position as ruler over the creation. God then immediately advised Adam and Eve that he would one day send a Seed from their lineage to crush the power of the prince of this world, Satan, and thereby restore man as its ruler. Jesus was that Seed.

Genesis 3:15 – And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

Christ came as that Seed possessing power over Satan and all his fallen angels, which are now also identified as devils or demons. Christ, as the pre-incarnate Son of God, saw Satan when he first fell billions of years ago.

Luke 10:17,18 – And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name. [18] And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven.

When Satan fell, about one-third of the angels fell from heaven with him as his followers. A falling star looks like a long bolt of lightning coming down from the heavens, and the stars of Revelation 12:4 represent all the angels that fell to the earth long ago with the Dragon, who is Satan.

Satan fell from heaven billions of years before the Seed arrived in the manger in Bethlehem, but patiently waited for the Seed’s arrival in the flesh, hoping to destroy him and keep his kingdom. But the Seed grew to manhood, was crucified for our sins, and Philippians 2:6-11 was fulfilled. Christ is in heaven today as the intercessor for all who have their faith in him for the salvation of their souls.

Philippians 2:6-11 – Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: [7] But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: [8] And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. [9] Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: [10] That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; [11] And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

If we confess him in this life, he will confess us forever as his children. It is a matter of first believing in the heart he is the total sacrifice for your sins to the extent you believe he is still alive by calling on his name to save you. Confession of him from your mouth as your Savior then naturally follows.

Romans 10:9,10 – That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. [10] For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.

Romans 10:13 – For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.

Acts 4:12 – Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

So Satan fell long ago, with one-third of the angelic host, but failed to destroy the Christ child, who is now in heaven with all the power of God.

Revelation 12:4,5 – And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born. [5] And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne.

Christ judged the prince of this world, and Satan was found wanting, and the power he held over men through the threat of death was broken by the Seed, who stepped on the serpent’s head and broke his power. But in so doing, the Seed’s heel, which walked upon earth to redeem mankind, was more than bruised at Golgotha.

Isaiah 53:5 – But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.

But the Seed’s death passed judgment on Satan, and this world over which Satan was prince, and now the power of the Holy Spirit draws men to the resurrected Seed through the preaching of the cross.

I Corinthians 1:18 – For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.

John 12:32 – And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.

John 14:30 – Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world (Satan) cometh, and hath nothing IN ME.

Satan could never possess the righteousness of God that is in Christ after falling, hence Jesus said, “and hath nothing IN ME.” We can only be made the righteousness of God by our position in Christ.

II Corinthians 5:21 – For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God IN HIM.

Christ alone can impute to us his righteousness, and he imputes it based on our faith in him to save us from the power of death, which is eternal separation from him in a lake of fire. The power of Satan is broken, and now men and women can be set free from the condemnation of God for their sins by trusting in Christ’s sacrifice for their sins. Only faith in the saving power of the Son can forever remove us from the condemnation of God for what we all are – born sinners.

John 8:36 – If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.

Lord willing, in our next Prophecy Update, I will clearly define from Scripture what I believe Satan did that caused his fall. I will also discuss the dinosaurs, evolution, when man was placed on this earth, and other things I am often asked about creation.

Special Prophecy Update Number 148D

December 2, 2003

Satan’s Sin as it Relates to the Gap Theory

Before reading this Update, please review Updates 148A, 148B, and 148C. The purpose of this Update is two fold – to offer some ideas in support of a hypothesis concerning the sin that transformed the angelic being Lucifer into the angelic adversary known today as Satan, the Devil, the Dragon, and the old serpent, and to supplement the “Gap Theory” of Dr. Thomas Chalmers as a possible explanation of the numerous species of life known to have inhabited the earth over a very long period of time. I am in agreement with Dr. Chalmers linguistic claim that Genesis 1:1 does indeed represent God’s original creation of perfect heavens and a perfect earth, while Genesis 1:2a represents the chaotic condition of that initial creation brought about by Satan’s first sin of rebellion against his creator, and that Genesis 1:2b begins the description of God renovating or regenerating the chaotic earth into a habitable planet, one which could support the biological needs of his new creation known as Adam, the first human on its surface.

Genesis 1:1,2 – In the beginning God created (bara’) the heaven and the earth. [2] And the earth was (hayethah - became) without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

Moses uses the word bara’ to indicate God created the heavens and earth from things that are not seen.

Hebrews 11:3 – Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

But in the re-creating or renovation of the bara’ of Genesis 1:1, when God begins the process of restoring it, he indicates he is making (asah’) visible things from his first bara’, which he created from unseen things.

Genesis 1:7 – And God made (‘asah) the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

Genesis 1:16 – And God made (‘asah) two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made (‘asah) the stars also.

‘Asah’ means to make from what is seen. Bara’ is often used to identify what is made from things that cannot be seen. God made (‘asah) the sun, moon, and stars from what he had already created (bara’) in 1:1.

In Exodus 20:11 he uses ‘asah, rather than bara’, because he is referring to remaking (‘asah) the earth in six days out of what had been marred in what he created (bara’) billions of years before the fall of Satan.

Exodus 20:11 – For in six days the Lord made (‘asah) heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

Vine’s says the following concerning created (bara’) as it relates to made (‘asah): “The verb bara’ is of profound theological significance, since it has only God as its subject. Only God can create in the sense implied by bara’: The verb expresses creation out of nothing on a cosmic scale: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”

In Genesis 2:3, referring back to Genesis 1:1 where God first created (bara’) the earth, then made (‘asah) the things of verses 4 to 17 out of what he had previously created, we find the two words used together.

Genesis 2:3 – And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created (bara’) and made (asah’).

I believe God created (bara’) the heavens and the earth billions of years ago, and Lucifer was placed over it. I do not know how much time passed before Lucifer fell. I do know God rested on the seventh day after he made (asah’) it such than man could exist on the earth.

One must be careful to explain that there is not a concrete, infallible rule for distinguishing precise bara’ and ‘asah differences in all cases, and the exact differences between the usages of bara’ and ‘asha in all sentence structures does have some variance. But the context in which they are placed in Genesis 1:1 to 1:17, does allow the distinction to be made.

When I retired from the National Security Agency, I enrolled in the Missionary Baptist Seminary. During my undergraduate work there, I was privileged to have Dr. Capell for study of the poetical books. When he was covering the book of Job he gave two assignments we had to turn in for a grade. We were allowed to write on any subject that might relate to the book. The first paper I composed was basically what you read in Update 148A, which I titled “A Brief History of the Gap Theory,” and Dr. Capell gave me an “A+” on it. To be quite honest, since I knew he was a proponent of the gap theory, I knew he would like it. However, when the second paper was due, my confidence he would like what I wrote was about a minus 10, but I wrote it anyway, and much to my surprise, he have me an “A” on it. The second paper was titled “The First Sin.” What follows is virtually a copy of what I wrote, and what I have taught at Dardanelle MBC for almost 30 years.

The basic hypothesis that I offer concerning Satan’s sin against God that caused the earth to become without form and void is as follows:

(1)    That Lucifer’s original sin was to attempt to create a living form of “bios” (life) by his own power.

(2)    That most, if not all, creatures possessing “bios” (life) in the time gap between Genesis 1:1, and the latter part of 1:2, were Satanic clones of the life forms God placed on the earth in Genesis 1:1.

(3)    That Satan’s basic purpose in his numerous forms of cloning “bios” (life) over millions of years was to produce a form of “bios” into which he could transfer his spirit, and sustain “zoe” (eternal life) in his cloned creature.

(4)    That Satan was finally able to clone an inferior non-homosapien form of “bios” without a living soul, but could not generate “zoe” into it.

Perhaps the most graphic description of Lucifer’s sin is contained in Isaiah 14:12-15 – How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! [13] For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: [14] I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. [15] Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.

I Timothy 3:6 – Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil.

Verses 13 and 14 from Isaiah, in conjunction with I Timothy 3:6, reveal the basic problem of Lucifer, pride, and is what his sin of rebellion most likely entailed. In his pride Lucifer wanted to be the most High, not in a position of being his servant, but being equal to him. So how could it be brought to pass? There is one thing about God that is absolutely unique – He is the creator all things, yet he was not created. Before Lucifer’s sin there were only two categories of existence or being – The Creator, and the created. The most High was the Creator and everything else was what he had created. In order for Lucifer to fulfill the prideful goal of his heart expressed by his statement, “I will be like the most High,” it was necessary for him to move into the Creator status that only God held. For only by moving into the Creator status could he have any possibility of reaching his lofty goal of being “like the most High.” It is with this idea I proceed with the hypothesis that Satan’s original sin consisted of attempting to be the first creation of God who could create life exactly like God generated life. I contend that God gave Satan billions of years to accomplish such a feat by experimentation with the first life forms God placed on the earth he created in Genesis 1:1. I contend that Satan was able to learn how to clone and manipulate the original life forms God created in Genesis, and that his counterfeiting endeavors over billions of years are found in the fossil records of the earth’s layers laid down over that vast expanse of time. I suspect God gave Satan all this time before a vast audience of his first creation, the angels, so that it would forever be established in their minds that God along was the giver of life, and all Satan was ever able to accomplish was the manipulation of the life forms God had first given life. So, in the end, after all the angelic host had seen the utter failure of Satan to produce a form of life to rule over the earth as his children, then God recreated what Satan had wrecked and marred, and placed a new creature on the earth to rule over it in righteousness for him, the creation we know as Adam, as man, as anthropos. And, when Adam sinned, God immediately revealed his plan to have his Seed, his only begotten Son, to be the one who would buy back Adam’s inheritance by the price of his own blood on the cross.

Genesis 3:15 – And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

Hebrews 2:14,15 – Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; [15] And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

It is my contention that while Satan was never able to create such a being as Adam, even by mutation of the species, manipulation of the DNA, or cloning, it is possible he was eventually successful in producing a creature with a crude form of animal intelligence. At the end of the pre-Cambrian age, hundreds of fossil life forms suddenly appeared in the Cambrian rock strata. These were the original life forms of Genesis 1:1, and it was from these simple life forms that Satan’s experimentation produced the heinous creatures that eventually roamed the earth for millions of years. It is conceivable that Satan hoped eventually, through experimentation with “bios,” to produce a life form in the flesh in which his “zoe” could dwell. If so, he failed completely. And, more importantly, all of heaven was a witness to his failure. I do not believe Satan has ever been, or ever will be, able to create life as God creates it, from his very person. But I do believe he has learned to take what God has created, and manipulate, mutate, and clone it into something God never intended. I will take the Scriptures, Lord willing, and make a case for my contention in the next Update.

Dr. J. Louis Guthrie, in his book, “Christ in Creation,” says of “bios” and “zoe” on page 17: “bios is a Greek word meaning physical or tangible life. From it we get many English derivatives connected with physical life. Zoe is the other form. It is not so easily defined and indeed corresponds more closely to what we call spiritual life in common speech. I cannot recall a single instance, where the Greek work bios, is ever used for the inner life of God, his saved, or angels, and I have given it pretty thorough investigation. These words and their meanings seem sometimes incorporated in the inner life when life is spoken of in the sense of such things as salvation, regeneration, development of Christian ideals, and the resurrection. Many times it is implied that the physical life depends on the spiritual. The living zoe never seems to have existence alone, the inner life is the sort that is self sustaining, and has no need of food itself, also it has complete power to give off eternally and never receive nor demand anything returning to it. This life seems to comprehend the infinity of matter, mind, and spirit. This is the complete fullness of divine life. God then becomes to us a complete personality of material, mind, and spirit.” Neither could I find a single case where bios, or derivations thereof, were ever used to refer to anything but things concerned with physical or tangible life. It was never used for the inner life of God, his saved, or angels. With this in mind, I repeat my original hypothesis that Satan was able to mutate, manipulate, and clone the cells of the original life forms of Genesis 1:1 into a low grade form of bios, but never zoa (eternal life). In my old seminary composition I wrote, “I would not be surprised to see scientists produce crude bios in test tube proportions in the next ten years.” And indeed they did! I told the members of the church I pastor in Dardanelle 25 years ago that they would clone a warm blooded mammal before the year 2000, and that it was quite possible they would clone a soulless human just before the Lord returned.

In my next Update I will give accounts from Scripture that support my hypothesis that Satan has, can, and will duplicate life forms. He has been in the process for a very long time. Hopefully, before I am finished with this series on the Genesis creation, I will transmit my explanation as what caused the age of the dinosaurs to abruptly come to an end.


Special Prophecy Update Number 148E

December 3, 2003

The Creation Gap Theory and Satan’s Ability to Create Life

Please read Prophecy Updates 148A through 148D before reading this Update. The basic hypothesis that I offered concerning the sin of Satan against God, which I contend caused the earth to become “without form and void,” was presented in Update 148D, and was as follows:

(1)   That Lucifer’s original sin was to attempt to create a living form of “bios” (physical life) by his own power.

(2)   That most, if not all, creatures possessing “bios” (physical life) in the time gap between Genesis 1:1, and the latter part of 1:2, were Satanic clones or counterfeits of the life forms God placed on the earth in Genesis 1:1.

(3)   That Satan’s basic purpose in his numerous forms of cloning or counterfeiting “bios” (physical life) over millions of years was to produce a form of “bios” into which he could transfer his spirit, and sustain “zoe” in his cloned creature.

(4)   That Satan was finally able to clone an inferior non-homosapien form of “bios” without a living soul, but could not generate “zoe” into it.

John, speaking of Christ, stated the character of life that God was able to place in physical man through faith in his Son’s ability to give it, and the Son himself professed his ability to give life having that character. The word “zoe” was used in both of the following scriptures each time the word “life” appears, and each time it means eternal life.

John 1:4 – In him was life; and the life was the light of men.

John 5:40 – And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life.

I certainly do not mean to imply that Satan was ever, or ever will be able, to become the original creator of anything except sin. But I do mean to imply that Satan, by misuse of his God-given intelligence, was able to clone, imitate, counterfeit, or whatever you want to label it, and bring forth a form of life we call “bios” from life that God created in Genesis 1:1. God alone is the creator of all things except sin. I am simply saying that Satan developed the capability to mutate, clone, counterfeit by his evil designs, and that these productions were made from the “all things” creations of God in Genesis 1:1.

Genesis 1:1 – In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

I do not mean he manipulated all of the “all things,” but that he did mutate some of them, and of the some he did mutate, he was never able to bring them under his complete control. I am also advancing the idea that God allowed Satan to carry this out over an enormous time span in order to prove to all creation God is the “most High” and, as such, the only one capable of sustaining all life and the creation itself.

Isaiah 14:12-16 – How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! [13] For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: [14] I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.

In order to add some inductive Biblical premises to my argument that some life forms prior to Genesis 1:3 were of Satanic mutation processes, I offer the account of the plagues, which were sent by God upon the Egyptians and their many false gods. It is noteworthy that the power of Satan to produce certain bios life forms through the Egyptian magicians was vividly portrayed. Satan was able to produce bios blood and two different types of cold-blooded reptilian bios in the form of serpents and frogs.

Exodus 7:10-12 – And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the Lord had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent. [11] Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments. [12] For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.

The superiority of God’s created bios serpents is shown by what they did to the cloned bios of Satan.

Exodus 7:20-22 – And Moses and Aaron did so, as the Lord commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. [21] And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt. [22] And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the Lord had said.

Exodus 8:5-7 - And the Lord spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt. [6] And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt. [7] And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt.

But when it came time to clone or counterfeit a warm-blooded bios, the magicians were unable to do it. I contend that, at this point in time, the Devil had not been able to master the cloning of warm-blooded bios, but I believed he would eventually learn how to counterfeit it, and that is why I told the church I pastor 25 years ago that scientists would one day clone a warm-blooded mammal. Notice the reaction of the magicians when they were asked to produce a small warm-blooded sand louse.

Exodus 8:16-18 – And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt. [17] And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. [18] And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon beast.

Please notice what the Egyptian magicians said. They recognized this creation was by the finger of God, which their god Satan was not able to duplicate.

Exodus 8:19 – Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had said.

They knew they could go no farther, because their god had not yet been able to master the cloning of warm-blooded creatures in the time of Moses. And their folly was manifested to Pharaoh and all of Egypt.

II Timothy 3:8,9 – Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith. [9] But they shall proceed no further: for their folly shall be manifest unto all men, as theirs also was.

The magicians exclamation, “This is the finger of God,” is a statement of their recognition of the power of the true God. They were not impressed that the “most High” could produce bios blood or simple forms of bios life in cold-blooded creatures, because their god could produce clones of counterfeit cold-blooded bios. But when God produced a small complex bios like a sand louse that their master could not yet clone, they quickly acknowledged a higher “finger” of power than that of the god to whom they belonged. Scientists cloned a frog long before they ever cloned a large warm-blooded mammal like “Dolly.” Satan energized the reptile in the Garden of Eden and the Egyptian magicians. He has energized many forms of life in all ages, and will do so in the future. I believe he is now energizing some TV evangelists who are willing to follow him today, as is indicated in II Timothy 3:6,7.

II Timothy 3:6,7 – For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts, [7] Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.

I feel it quite within the realm of possibility that the reptilian species of the many geological ages were Satan’s experimental clones of the original bios God created in Genesis 1:1. It is also conceivable that as each new species ran into a dead end by failing to progress into what Satan had in mind, it was subsequently eliminated by some great catastrophe, cast out or discarded to make room for another attempt to produce a species of bios that could rule over the earth as Satan’s representative. The earth’s crust bears testimony to many such catastrophic events during its long history. It is not unreasonable to assume Satan may have been able to ultimately produce a species of bios such as the hominoid findings of the Leakey family in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania, which roamed the earth millions of years ago. Satan may well have been able to produce a hairy bios creature with enough intelligence to develop a lifestyle with a strong self-preservation instinct. I do not even rule out the possibility that such a hairy bios creature may have attained sufficient intelligence to dig out shallow graves for its dead to eliminate the stench associated with bios decay, and to draw characters on cave walls, but these were not men created by God with souls – They were not zoe, they were creatures of bios life but not of bios indwelt by zoe, the breath of God. They were not living souls.

Genesis 2:7 – And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

Hopefully, in Prophecy Update 148F, I will complete this series on the Genesis creation, and finally get around to discussing what I believed caused the dinosaurs, and the associated land life forms of their distant age, to disappear so suddenly in geologic time.


December 5, 2003

Gap Theory Phases of the Earth

I accepted the Gap Theory long before I came to the Missionary Baptist Seminary in Little Rock, Arkansas. It has been around since Hector was a pup. I attended the original Antioch Missionary Baptist Church in the late forties and early fifties while Dr. Bogard was still living, and entered my military and National Security Agency career in 1951. I was first exposed to it while working in Washington from Merrill Unger’s Bible Handbook. So it was no great leap for me to listen attentively to what was taught concerning it while I was a student at the seminary. I again wish to state what I have said over and over again in this series – the gap theory is just what the title implies, it is a THEORY, no more and no less, but Genesis 1:1 is not a THEORY, it is a FACT.

Genesis 1:1 – In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

I do not believe man evolved. I believe he was created on a single day, the sixth day of a restoring of the original creation of God in Genesis 1:1, which became something other than what God intended when the Devil rebelled against his authority by attempting to create life forms. I would encourage you to read Prophecy Updates 148A to 148E to gain the background needed to follow what I am about to present in this Update.

I believe there have been two great floods on the present earth that God originally created, the flood of Noah’s time, and the flood of Genesis 1:2a.

Genesis 1:2 – And the earth was (hayethah-became) without form (tohu), and void (bohu); and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

As I have shown in previous updates, the first sentence in 1:2 states what the earth had become as a result of Satan attempting to manipulate God’s original creation of 1:1. The word “deep” is a noun that means “abyss,” and refers to the bottom of a great flood God has sent upon the earth to destroy Satan’s creation, and the “face” of that great flood is the surface of its waters that cover all the earth. The second sentence of 1:2 – “And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters,” pictures God hovering over the surface of the waters, which he used to cover Satan’s maze of confusion. It is the picture an artist would portray by painting a portrait of a chicken hovering over her eggs to give protection and her warmth to produce new life from her eggs she originally laid. This is the announcement of what is about to follow in the rest of the first chapter of Genesis, which is a literal six day restoration of the original creation of God in Genesis 1:1 that had been marred by the activity of Satan. The first great flood in the Bible is not the flood in the time of Noah, it is the great flood of Genesis 1:2 that covered all the land surface of the original creation of God.

The earth has gone through several phases of God dealing with it since he originally created it. They are as follows:

(1)   The Original Earth – Genesis 1:1

(2)   The Earth Marred by Satan – Genesis 1:2

(3)   The Earth Reshaped by God – Genesis 1:3-31

(4)   The Earth Cursed by God – Genesis 6:17,18

(5)   The Flood of Noah’s Day – Genesis 7:23,24

(6)   The Present Earth – Genesis 9:15

I believe that God created the earth billions of years ago. I do not know, nor can I estimate, when Satan first rebelled against God, but I believe a great gap of time exists between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2b, and I also believe that the re-creation by God from Genesis 1:3 onwards was done in six literal days, not over long periods of time. Please note in Genesis 7:19-24 that only the land based creatures were totally wiped out in the great flood of Noah’s day. The same was true in the first great flood of Genesis 1:2, only the creatures dependant upon “the face of the ground” for their life survival were destroyed.

Genesis 7:23 – And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.

The sea creatures were not all destroyed completely in either of the two floods. God did create (bara’) great whales in the seas in his re-creation. It is interesting that whales are mammals. It appears that the creatures of the oceans were not all destroyed by the Genesis 1:2 flood, and that many, along with some birds that were able to survive the flood, were allowed by God to bring “forth abundantly, after their kind,” in order to once again repopulate their domains.

Genesis 1:21 – And God created (bara’) great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

This would explain why fossil replicas of fish from the pre-Genesis 1:2b flood were discovered, which perfectly match their descendant species in the oceans of today. These fish fossils that match were found in areas of the earth’s land mass that were once joined together, but tore apart at the time of Satan’s rebellion against God between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2. If you will take world map and look at the protruding northeastern part of the South American continent, then shift your eyes across the Atlantic to view the area of greatest curvature in the western coastline of Africa, you will see how the two continents were once joined together into a single land mass. The identical fish fossils from the pre-flood of Genesis 1:2b are found in Africa and South America where they once joined together. They were separated when the earth began to break apart from being a single dry land mass at the time of Satan’s rebellion against God, who created the single dry landmass in Genesis 1:1. Geologists have named the first landmass of Genesis 1:1 “Pangaea,” which means “all lands.” The development of plate tectonics principles in the twentieth century brought a sweeping change in our understanding of the original earth. It was a century in which we ran across, under, and above the earth, and it was a time when the most fantastic increase in human understanding of the earth and the universe occurred, an acceleration that is beyond belief. Now, in these last days of this age, we can understand many of the tenets of God’s creation that Moses, and those traveling with him, were not able to grasp in their day, which is the reason God gave them a very simple account they could accept, but left a fuller understanding in the linguistic account for us to understand in these last days.

Daniel 12:4 – But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.

Soon after the first truly reliable world maps were made, geographers noticed that the continents would fit together like a jigsaw puzzle if they could be moved, but the idea of a mobile crust was not considered until the knowledge explosion occurred in the early nineteenth century. As a certified meteorologist, I became familiar with the work of another man who was my peer in meteorology, Alfred Wegener, a meteorologist who accepted the theory first advanced in 1908 by American geologist Frank B. Taylor. The German, Alfred Wegener, gave the first good explanation of why plate tectonics was valid, by pointing out the similarities in the fossils found on the coastlines of northeastern Brazil and central sections of the western coast of Africa. His evidence was published in a 1915 book with the title, “The Origins of Continents and Oceans.” Warner believed that the continents light granite rock somehow plowed above the denser basalts of the ocean sea floors, driven by forces related to the rotation of the earth. His theory was not proven until our “running to and fro” on the ocean sea floor (since the end of World War II), enabled us, by the development of seismic tomography (created by the earthquake waves passing through the earth), to see the cracks in the world’s crust. Then the technology needed to track the historical magnetic paths of polar wandering through magnetic patterns in the rock strata reversals on the ocean and sea floors was developed, and we were finally able to accept the tectonic drift of the continents over a long period of time to be a fact, rather than just a theory. The dinosaurs, and their fellow land creatures, lived in the age that followed the fall of Satan in Genesis 1:2, and their extinction occurred suddenly and abruptly in the flood of Genesis 1:2b, after having flourished for millions of years. Genesis 1:3 is the beginning of the description of a literal six day restoration of the fallen creation following the flood of Genesis 1:2a.

Genesis 1:1-3 - In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. [2] And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. [3] And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

I am beginning to wonder if I will ever complete this series, but, Lord willing, I will eventually finish. I don’t know if I really want to take the time to go through the re-creation verses line by line, but if I feel inclined to do so it will eventually appear in our future Prophecy Updates. If I feel up to it, I may discuss the earth’s age theory of Bishop Ussher in the next creation update. I believe his theory first appeared some 23 years after the 1611 edition of the King James Bible, and, if correct, would have the earth reaching an age of 6,008 years in 2004.


December 6, 2003

The Gap Theory Flood and the Age of the Earth

Please read Prophecy Updates 148A through 148F before reading this Update. Up until the time that Bishop Ussher, in about 1634, added up the genealogical dates in the fifth chapter of Genesis, and gave them as proof that the earth was created in 4004 B.C., people did not particularly care how long the earth had existed. They just read the first Scripture in the Bible, and believed it. That satisfies me, but it does not seem enough for a number of people, so I have given you an account of what I believe concerning the how and the when of creation, as I interpret it from the account in Genesis. However, what I consider important is that God created the earth, not when and how he did it.

Genesis 1:1 – In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

It is highly unlikely that God intended to wait until 1634 to reveal the age of the earth to an Irish Archbishop named James Ussher. I don’t believe that the genealogical ages from Seth to Noah were intended, or can be used, for calculating the age of the earth. The Hebrew words used for “son,” “daughter,” and “begat,” may involve a distant or an immediate descendant. Merrill Unger, in his “Bible Handbook,” gives several reasons why one should not use Bishop Ussher’s calculated age of the earth as factual. They are quoted as follows:

(1)    The Hebrew terms “begat,” “son,” “daughter,” are used with great latitude and may involve a distant as well as an immediate descendant.”

(2)    The ten generations from Adam to Noah and the ten from Noah evidently aim at brevity and symmetry, rather than unbroken father-to-son relation.

(3)    Abbreviations due to symmetry are common features of Scripture genealogies (as in the first chapter of Matthew).

(4)    In the recurring formula: A lived ____ years and begat sons and daughters, and A lived after he begat B ____ years and begat sons and daughters, B may not be the literal son of A. (the identical Hebrew word “ben” is used for son, grandson, great-grandson, great-great-grandson, adinfinitim). The age of A is his age when his descendant was born from whom B was descended. So an indefinite time interval may therefore be intended between A and B.

Believe me when I tell you I have heard all the arguments that come from cross referencing Old Testament and New Testament genealogies in an attempt to prove man was created in 4004 B.C. And I have tried to be open and honest with God and myself in attempting to discover from the Scriptures exactly when Adam was created on this planet. I cannot tell you from the Scriptures when Adam was created. All I can do is to give you an estimate based on what I have seen in the fossil record of what I believe to be the descendants of Adam, and the latitude I believe allowed by God without violating the linguistics of the Scripture. I approximate, estimate, just plain guess, that God created Adam in the Garden of Eden some 25 to 30 thousand years ago. But if you believe God created Adam in 4004 B.C., I will certainly admit you might be correct. And if you do believe that the earth is only 6,007 years old, I have no problem with it. But if you tell me that God did not create the earth, or that he did not create Adam on the sixth day, or that he created Adam by a process of evolution from lower life forms, then I violently disagree with you.

The flood that closed the age of the dinosaurs, and their cold-blooded epic of geological time, occurred in the final sentence of Genesis 1:2.

Genesis 1:2 – And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

In the discourse that follows I will attempt to correlate Genesis 1:1-3 with II Peter 3:3-8.

II Peter 3:3,4 – Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, [4] And saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation.

Genesis 1:1 – In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

This was the first single land mass continent that stood alone out of the seas and oceans of our planet. It was given the name Pangaea by Alfred Wegener in 1915 in his book, “The Origins of Continents and Oceans.” It correlates with II Peter 3:5.

II Peter 3:5 – For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water:

Genesis 1:2a – And the earth was (hayethah) without form (tohu), and void (bohu); and darkness was upon the face of the deep.

This is what the earth became when Satan rebelled against God. It was in this state for a very long period of time. After Satan had been given millions of years to create a living bios creature with a soul, he utterly fell on his face, and all of the created beings of God watched him fail. It was at the end of Satan’s failure that God flooded the earth, and wiped out the land dwelling creatures on the earth abruptly and suddenly. Thus Genesis 1:2a correlates with II Peter 3:6.

II Peter 3:6 – Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished:

Genesis 1:2b – And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

This is when the Spirit of God fluttered over the surface of the flood that covered the earth, like a dove hovering over her eggs she previously laid to give them protection and warmth to come to life. This is when the waters began to recede off the earth, and it eventually became the divided earth much as we know it today. This verse correlates with II Peter 3:7.

II Peter 3:7 – But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.

Genesis 1:3 – And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

This verse marks the beginning of the penetration of light that had only been able to keep the earth in a state of scattered, diffused, refracted, and reflected light for a very long period of time, but now it begins to break through the great cloud shroud around the earth, and marks the start of God’s six days of re-creation of his original creation marred by Satan.

During the re-creation God made most of what he made out of what was already here from his first creation. You will find the word ‘asah used in those cases. But he also initially created some things for the first time in the six-day re-creation. In those cases you will find the word bara’ was used.

I do not mean to be rude, or difficult to get along with, but because I got tired of having to try to tell people what I believed about creation in ten words or less, I did not address the subject in my 27 years of lectures in churches, seminaries, colleges, universities, and institutions of higher learning. I have seen as much controversy on this subject as I have on the rapture question. I am tired of controversy and flying dust among the brethren, and having to defend my positions in such a wide area of disagreement, so if you send me questions on these two subjects, you may not get an a reply. Let me put it simply: I believe that God created the heaven and earth, that he created Adam on the sixth day, that the days were 24 hours long, that Adam did not evolve through evolution, that Jesus was the second Adam who died for my sins and is my Savior, and that he is coming sometime soon for me. I really don’t have the time or inclination to get involved in something less important than what I have just stated.

Dr. L.D. Foreman was a close friend who encouraged me very early in my ministry to pursue the destruction of the earth by movement of the tectonic plates in the tribulation period. He asked me if he could include my material from Tectonic Chaos in the fiftieth, and last memorial, of his publication, and he included a lot of it in his anniversary publication. But there was one thing we differed on, and I discussed it with him at length in the cafeteria at the Texarkana Book Store shortly before his ill- fated trip to the Solomon Islands, where he suffered a fatal heart attack while baptizing one of the new converts. After Dr. Foreman published his book, “The Bible in Eight Ages,” certain topographical discoveries were made in Iraq, and I discussed it with him at length. Unfortunately we did not have an opportunity to continue the discussion after his trip to the Solomon Islands. I don’t know if I would have been able to get him to change his mind had he returned, but I do intend to present where I differed with him in one part of his book. Lord willing, I will put this out as Prophecy Update 149A.


December 6, 2003

Gap Theory Continental Breakup – When?

Please read Prophecy Updates 148A to 148G before reading this Update. I contend there was only one continent when God created the earth in Genesis 1:1. Geologists call it Pangaea, which means “all lands.” When Lucifer rebelled against God this one landmass, Pangaea, began to break up and spread apart. It has been spreading apart ever since, and is still spreading apart in some areas, but undercutting and overriding itself in others. The spreading may have started as early as two billion years ago, or as late as 150 million years in the past. I believe this breakup of this first land mass occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, and that the first part of 1:2 shows the results of that breakup.

Genesis 1:1,2 – In the beginning God created (bara’) the heaven and the earth. [2] And the earth was (became-hayethah) without form (tohu), and void (bohu); and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

For bara’, hayethah, tohu, and bohu, please see Updates 148A to 148G.

Widespread tectonic plate motion proofs come from two different aspects of the earth’s magnetic field. These are the “paths of polar wandering” and patterns of magnetic reversals on the sea floor. We were able to see the plate movements over long periods of time because the long lines of magnetic force running between the north and south poles influence the properties of rock as it forms. Following World War II we developed the ability to map the entire sea floor of the world through many deep-sea explorations and satellite spectrographic photography in all the various colors of the spectrum. The heat seeking ability of detection by colors of the spectrum unveiled what had been hidden from man’s eye’s since his creation in the Garden of Eden, the great cracks in the crust of the ocean and sea floors that extended down to great underground lakes of molten magma. One of these great cracks is now identified as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and, along this crack, since the breakup of Pangaea, liquid lava has been flowing upward, hardening instantly when its hits the waters on the Ocean sea floor. This phenomenon has been spreading the European and African continents apart from the North and South American continents at a very, very, slow rate, averaging perhaps only a few inches per year. We know it has been a very slow process by the interaction between two things in God’s creation, the change of state occurrences in rocks when they change from liquid to solid, and the constant shifting of the earth’s magnetic field. Volcanic rocks cooling from the lava become magnetized in the direction of the earth’s magnetic field when they cool to a solid state. The lines of force in the magnetic field occur at different angles at earth’s different latitudes, being horizontal at the equator and vertical at the poles. By using a sensitive instrument called a magnetometer one can determine the direction of the magnetic poles and the magnetic latitude at the time the rock was formed into its solid state. Studies of magnetic properties in rocks show that the continents have changed their positions relative to the earth’s magnetic field during the geologic time since the fall of Satan and the associated breakup of Pangaea. The continents followed different paths relative to the magnetic poles, showing that they have moved relative to each other, which led to the proof that continental drift tectonic plate theory was correct, and that the earth has been slowly spreading apart for countless numbers of years.

Another proof of tectonic plate drift over eons of time were studies of the basalt rock magnetic properties across the surface of the entire earth, which proved that the earth’s magnetic field has reversed itself many times during the last 70 to 80 million years, There have been periods of 1 to 3 million years during which the magnetic poles have been close to their present locations, followed by similar periods during which the north and south poles have been reversed. At least nine reversals have occurred in the last 5 million years. The present period of “normal” polarity began about 700,000 years ago, and was preceded by a period of reverse polarity some 2 million years before it occurred, which contained two short periods of “normal” polarity.

In the early sixties Fred Vine and D.H. Matthews postulated that since the earth’s magnetic field had been reversed intermittently, then new basalt forming at the crest of the Mid-Atlantic ridge during geologic time would have experienced a process of being magnetized, and that it would have to be according to the earth’s polarity at that time. As spreading of the ocean floor progressed, a series of normal and reversed magnetic strips should have been produced symmetrically from the center of the ridge. Each band of new rock moving on the ocean floor to the east on one side of the crack, and to the west on the other side, should have kept the original magnetic declination it received at the time of its formation from liquid to solid, and each section on either side of the crack should have a matching section equal distant on the other side of the crack. So, if their postulation was correct, the result should have been a matching set of parallel bands of normal and reversed magnetized rocks on either side of the ridge. The use of magnetometers across the Atlantic Ocean floor proved their theory to be a fact.

Dr. L.D. Foreman, whom I loved dearly, and who was a kind friend to me in my early years as a believer, believed the earth did spread apart, and was a proponent of the Gap Theory, but he believed the continents began to spread apart in the days of Peleg. The only time we ever fully discussed “when” I believed they first begin to spread apart was in the break room of the ABA Texarkana book store shortly before he went to the Solomon Islands, where he died of a heart attack while baptizing a new convert. I really don’t know if I would ever have been able to bring him to believe what I concluded about the land spreading in the days of Peleg, because I never had the opportunity after our Texarkana meeting, but I intended to try. There were some geological, geographic, and archeological discoveries in Iraq that did not really come to light until the fifties, and they tend to indicate a different interpretation of Scripture dealing with the days of Peleg. They involve the discovery of a canal, or as the ancients of that day called it, “a rill”, or a watercourse, for travel and irrigation of the land.

According to Strong’s Dictionary of Old Testament Words, the Hebrew word PELEG means: “A rill (i.e., a small channel of water, as is used in irrigation).” The Indian custom of naming their children after historical events that occurred near or at their birth, which is still done at times in our present day culture, was quite common among the ancients, and I am persuaded that Peleg was named for a historic event among the ancients of his day. Peleg was born some 100 years after the flood, at which time civilization was limited largely to the fertile valleys that lay between the Tigris and Euphrates River, which both emptied into the Persian Gulf. So the event was a major one for the known world of that day. In the following Scripture the word translated “earth” is the Hebrew word “erets,” and in the context of this verse it means only the land surface that made up the known world at Peleg’s birth. Young’s Analytical Concordance lists the numbers of ways it is translated in the KJV.

Country – 140 times

Earth – Frequently

Field – 1

Ground – 96

Land – Frequently

Nation – 1

Way – 3

World – 4

So, as you can see from the table, earth or land is the usual meaning of it. We often refer to fertile soil as the good land of the earth.

Genesis 10:25 – And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth (erets) divided (palag); and his brother's name was Joktan.

We now know that the earliest civilization, which lived in the wide fertile valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, built what they would have called a rill or watercourse, but which we would call a canal. It was used for irrigation between the two rivers, and to transport trade goods from one river population to the other by small boats, rather than having to cross either river.

PALAG, translated as “divided,” is rarely used in the Old Testament, and only four occurrences are listed in Young’s Analytical Concordance. It is a primary root and, according to Strong’s Dictionary, it simply means: “to split.”

So, putting this all together, I do not believe this is when the continents, as we know them today, began to move apart at the speed of ocean liners. I believe the one continent that God created in Genesis, which geologists have named Pangaea, began to break apart very slowly when Lucifer rebelled against God between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, and they have been very slowly drifting apart for countless numbers of years.

I believe that Peleg was named for the peleg (rill or canal of water) that was made when the erets (land) was palag (split), and which did indeed separate the known world of civilization into two sections, a northern half of the Tigris-Euphrates River valley, and a southern half ending at the Persian Gulf. I believe it likely that the rill had just been completed when Peleg was born, and his name was used as a historical marker of the event.

The three videos, titled “A Geological Exposition of the Second Coming of Christ”, which are found for on the Menu at the top of this Update you are now reading under VIDEOS, make a very convincing case that God will again break up along the borders of the world’s existing tectonic plates, and thereby generate many of the terrifying events of the coming tribulation period. They are on the second page of VIDEOS, which is opened by clicking on the bottom of the first exposed page.

This is the end of The Gap Series. It runs from 148A through 148H. I do not intend to say anything else about it. If anyone asks me what I believe about creation, what follows is what I proclaim. The first two Scriptures are what I know for sure about creation, and the last five are what I know for sure about the last Adam, Jesus. I preach the last five, and do believe they are more important than completely understanding the two in Genesis.

Genesis 1:1 – In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

Genesis 2:7 – And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

I Corinthians 15:45 – And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.

John 6:62,63 – What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before? [63] It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.

John 5:40 – And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life.

Romans 10:17 – So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

Romans 10:13 – For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.