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Ungodly Humanity Blaspheme the Name of the True God of Heaven


The word Blaspheme is from the Greek number 988 and the word: βλασφημία, blasphémia.


It means: impious and reproachful speech injurious to the divine majesty;


Greek word number 989 and the word:     βλάσφημος,   blasphémos.


It means:    speaking evil, slanderous, reproachful, railing, abusive.


1. The group of people that will blaspheme the True God of Heaven will be the Biblical Antichrist and his followers as recorded in the Book of Revelation.


This Antichrist is the Arab/Islamic Leader of the Arab/Islamic Empire/Ten Kingdom that will arise in the Middle East.


This Antichrist/Beast will be worshiped by the Islamic people in the Middle East.


They will be worshiping the Dragon/Devil/Satan through the Islamic Antichrist.


This Arab Empire will last for 42 months or 3 1/2 years; see Revelation 13:5.


At the end of this 3 1/2 years is when the Lord Jesus Christ will return and destroy this Arab Empire.


The Roman Catholic System in the Vatican City will be destroyed by the Alban Hills Volcanic Complex or the Monti Sabatini Volcanic Complex:


Be sure to check out these other studies on this Website:

The Future Destruction of Rome, Italy

The Volcanic Burning of the Vatican City



Revelation 13: [1] And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
[2] And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.
[3] And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.
[4] And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to make war with him?
[5] And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.
[6] And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.
[7] And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
[8] And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
[9] If any man have an ear, let him hear.
[10] He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.
[11] And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke as a dragon.
[12] And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.
[13] And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men,
[14] And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.
[15] And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.
[16] And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:
[17] And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.
[18] Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.


2. The Roman Catholic Religious System in Rome, Italy will co-exist with the Islamic Empire which will be made up of the Ten Arab Nations in the Middle East, because of the riches they contain…


Revelation 17 : [1] And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will show unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
[2] With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.
[3] So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet colored beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
[4] And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
[5] And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.
[6] And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
[7] And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.


3. These are spiritually lost people who will be living during the Wrath of God during the 4th Vial:  


 4th Trumpet and 4th Vial


Revelation 16: [8] And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire. [9] And men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues: and they repented not to give him glory.


4th Vial:  And the fourth angel poured out his broad shallow cup and vial upon the light, of the rising sun in the east; and power was given unto him to scorch human beings with fire. And human beings were burned and scorched with a great and mighty burning, glowing heat; and they began to blaspheme and speak evil and defame, the name of the very exceeding great God; who has the authority, mastery and power over this stroke of a calamity and these plagues: and they did not repent or think differently or reconsider to give Him glory, honor and worshipful praise. [Rev. 16:8-9].

 

Revelation 16:8-9 – 4th plague – destruction of the ozone layer by volcanic activity, allowing penetration of ultraviolet radiation causing a burning skin cancer.


[Revelation 16:8-9] And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire. And men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues: and they repented not to give him glory.

 

This is a two-roll Jewish scroll that rolls together toward the center. As one looks upon an open scroll, much writing is in full view of the reader’s eyes. However, as one slowly rolls the two ends toward each other, the writing slowly but surely disappears from view bit by bit --- and finally disappears completely when the two rolls meet. When numerous volcanoes begin to erupt at the first trumpet, the upper stratosphere will not immediately be filled with ash. It will take time but gradually the suspended volcanic cloud bands of ash will roll themselves together --- and one by one all the heavenly bodies will fade from view. The spread of volcanic clouds in the stratosphere will occur in stages. When the fourth trumpet sounds, the distribution of suspended ash will be such that at any given location the heavenly bodies will only be visible about one-third of a twenty-four-hour period. The complete filling of the earth’s atmosphere does not occur until shortly after the fifth trumpet. By the last drop of the fourth vial, the injection of volcanic hydrogen chloride by violent upward projection will have virtually destroyed the ozone layer. Without this protective ozone shield, ultraviolet radiation will pour down upon those left behind after the Rapture. The beginning of skin cancer at the first vial will have reached plague proportions by the fourth vial. Ultraviolet radiation is a scorching fire as compared to the radiation we now receive from the sun at the earth’s surface.

 

Type in the words: Ash Cloud in the image section of an Internet Search or click this link:

01.    Ash Cloud Images


4. These are spiritually lost people who will be living during the Wrath of God during the 5th Vial:

 

 5th Trumpet and 5th Vial


Revelation 16: [10] And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain, [11] And blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, and repented not of their deeds.

 

5th Vial:   And the fifth angel poured forth his broad shallow cup and vial upon the seat of power of the beast; and his kingdom and realm of rule  was obscured, blind and full of darkness; and they chewed and gnawed their tongues because of the anguish and pain; And blasphemed and spoke evil, to defame the very exceeding God of the abode of  heaven, because of their anguish, and  pain, and their ulcerous sores, and did not repent or think differently, nor reconsider, because  of their acts, deeds and labors. [Rev. 16:10-11].

 

Revelation 16:10-11 – 5th plague – a massive pyroclastic holocaust from volcanic lava upon wicked humanity.


[Revelation 16:10-11] And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain, And blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, and repented not of their deeds.

 

When all the tectonic plates of the earth have completed their massive worldwide slippage, not one island or mountain will have its original geographical location. Their fixed latitudinal and longitudinal set of coordinates in degrees of minutes and seconds will be changed. This great shifting will produce a volcanic chain of eruptions that will send mankind into the dens and rocks of the mountains. The bottomless pit is the earth’s interior being a great fiery furnace. When the crust along the tectonic boundaries open, there will be catastrophic volcanic eruptions like the world has never seen. Only dim outlines of the heavenly bodies will be seen from the earth. When these boundaries are opened, spiritual demonic beings will be released and torment lost humanity for the last five months remaining of the Great Tribulation Period.

 

In Revelation 8:13, the Scriptures proclaim a warning by saying: Woe, woe, woe to those who inhabit the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound!  This 5th trumpet sounds and releases these demonic beings through the volcanic vents from the earth’s interior. They torment lost humanity for five months or 150 days. This event begins a period of “five months” (5 x 30 = 150 days) before the end of the Great Tribulation Period, which is 70 days before the “last trump” (I Corinthians 15:51-52 & II Thessalonians 4:16-18) announcing the Rapture of the saved from the earth, since the demons are instructed not to hurt the saved, “but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads.”  The full text of this 5th trumpet “Woe” is found in Revelation 9:1-11. The “Saved”will be on the earth during this event!

 

5 Months or 5 x 30 Biblical Days = 150 Days

5th /35 days   ---   6th /35 days   ---  7th /35 days  ---  + 45 Days of Wrath Period

105 Days ---  45 Days = 150 Days

 

For a description of these demonic beings, which escape from the interior of the earth and  torment the "spiritually lost of humanity" for the last five months of The Great Tribulation Period,  click on the following link:

01.   Pazuzu

 

The bottomless pit is the interior of the earth. These Scripture are links. Just click on them for more information.

01.  Revelation 9:1 

02.  Revelation 9:2

03.  Revelation 9:11

04.  Revelation 11:7 

05.  Revelation 17:8

06.  Revelation 20:1

07.  Revelation 20:3

08.  Bottomless Pit   

 

Type in the words: Earth's Interior in the image section of an Internet Search or click this link for information about the bottomless pit:

01.   Earth's Interior

   

Type in the words: Volcano Eruption in the image section of an Internet Search or click this link:

01.   Volcano Eruption

 

Type in the words: Volcano Vent and/or Volcano Crater in the image section of an Internet Search or click these four links:

01.  Volcano Vent

02.  Volcano Crater

03.  Volcanic Crater

04.  Caldera

 

 

Type in the words: Volcano Eruption Ozone Hole in the image section of an Internet Search for information about the destruction of the Ozone Layer from Volcanic Eruptions or click this link:

01.   Volcanic Eruption Ozone Hole

 

5. These are spiritually lost people who will be living during the Wrath of God during the 7th Vial:


 7th Trumpet and 7th Vial


Revelation 16: [17] And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done.
[18] And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great.
[19] And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.
[20] And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.
[21] And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.


7th Vial:   And the seventh angel poured out his broad shallow cup and vial into the blowing air; and there came a great and mighty voice out of the shrine and temple of the sky of heaven, from the abode of God, from the throne of power, saying: “It is done!”  “It hath come!” And there were voices and noises, sounds of a tone; and roaring thunders, and a bright, shining glare, lightning’s; and there was an exceeding great, large and mighty earthquake and earth-shock; a shaking of the ground, a commotion and tempest; such as this, so vast of a magnitude; such as was not since human beings were upon the earth; so mighty an earthquake, and so exceedingly great, large and mighty, so full of power. And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the Gentile, heathen and pagan people fell down: and great Babylon, the capital of tyranny, came in remembrance as to recall, to be mindful to punish, before Deity; the very exceeding great God; to give unto her the cupful of the wine of the passionate fierceness and indignation of His wrath.  And every and all; even the whole of  isles and islands fled away and vanished; and the mountains, as lifting itself above the plain, were not  and could not be obtained or found;  and there descended and fell upon human beings,  a great, large and mighty hail out of the sky of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent-like: and human beings blasphemed, defamed and spoke evil of Deity; the very exceeding great God;  because of the plague, stroke and calamity of the hail; for the plague, stroke and calamity thereof was exceeding and vehemently, in high degree, very great; for it was extremely severe and terrible. [Rev.16:17-21]. 

 

Revelation 16:17-21 – 7th plague – the greatest earthquake to ever have occurred since humanity has been on earth will take place in the Jordan river valley, causing the city of Jerusalem to split into three sections and producing a chain reaction of earthquakes, which will cause the cities of the nations of the world to fall into ruin, ending with catastrophic global volcanic activity, developing a single dust cloud encircling the entire planet earth.

 

Volcanic Hailstorm…   calaza    chalaza  khal'-ad-zah…  Hail:  chalaza khal’-ad-zah to lower (as into a void): to let down from a higher place to a lower; hail. [Greek: chalaza, hard lump, hailstone.]  

 

Revelation 8:7 The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.

 

Revelation 11:19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.  

 

Revelation 16:21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, [every stone] about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.  

 

What is this “hail”?  It is mingled with a substance of a blood red color.  It was cast upon the earth.  It is associated with a third part of the trees being burned up. It is associated with all the green grass being burned up.  It is associated with lightning, a tone of thunder, an earthquake and is great. It fell out of heaven.  It had a tremendous effect upon humanity, because the plague was extremely great.

 

When the Great Tribulation Period begins, there will be absolutely no doubt as to what this “hail" really is. Just plain and simple: this “hail” will be molten rocks of volcanic “hailstones” that will cast out from the volcanic vents of the earth.

 

The majority of these events will be along the earths’ tectonic plate boundaries. This “hail” noticeably begins on the 1st trumpet; it intensifies with the sounding of the 7th trumpet and becomes “exceeding great” upon the pouring out of the 7th vial of the wrath of God.

 

A volcanic bomb is a globe of molten rock (tephra) larger than 65 mm (2.5 inches) in diameter, formed when volcano ejects viscous fragments of lava during an eruption. They cool into solid fragments before they reach the ground. Lava bombs can be thrown many kilometers from erupting vents, and often acquires aerodynamic shapes during their flight. Bombs can be extremely large; the 1935 eruption of Asama in Japan expelled bombs measuring 5-6 meters in diameter up to distances of 600 meters from the vent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


Phase Seven:  7th Seal, 7thTrumpet, 7th Vial

 

[Revelation 6:17]   For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

 

[Revelation 11:15 & 19]   And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign forever and ever. And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

 

[Revelation 16:17-21] And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done. And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great. And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

 

This is the last stage of His great wrath and there will be very few people left alive on the earth. This phase begins with an increase in the intensity of volcanic eruptions producing volcanic hail or bombs and finally brings about the greatest earthquake in the history of humanity. It will occur in the Jordan River Valley and will split the city of Jerusalem into three sections. This great earthquake will start a chain reaction of earthquakes throughout the global tectonic plate boundaries, resulting in the destruction the cities of the world and the city of Rome, Italy will be completely destroyed by volcanic fire by the Colli Albani volcano, eventually sinking beneath the earths’ surface and engulf by the Tiber River. This chain reaction will end with great volcanic hail or melting rocks being thrown out upon the unbelieving people of the world during this forty-five day period of the Wrath of God. 

 

The Great Tribulation of Volcanic Hail

 

During the Great Tribulation Period, the words, “great hail” are mentioned as occurring on the Seventh Trumpet in Revelation 11:19 and on the Seventh Vial of Wrath in Revelation 16:21.  These two words describe something out of the ordinary.

 

First, it expresses the idea of being “great.” This is not something typical as if being a thunderstorm.

 

Second, the “hail” is associated with: [“shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth; lightning and voices and thundering and an earthquake; Rev.11:19.]---[and there were voices and thunders and lightnings and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty and so great. And the great city was divided into three parts and the cities of the nations fell.  And every island fled away and the mountains were not found; every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great. Rev. 16:18-21.]


For a better understanding of the word "hail,  as mentioned in Revelation 8:7; 11:15-19 and 16:17-21, just do some research on the words: Volcanic Bomb.

 

Type in the words: Volcanic Bomb in an Internet Search Section or click this link:

01.  Volcanic Bomb

 

Type in the words: Volcanic Bomb in the image section of an Internet Search or click this link:

01.  Volcanic Bomb Images

 

Type in the words: Plate Tectonics in the image section of an Internet Search or click this link:

01.   Plate Tectonics

 

Type in the words: Plate Boundaries in the image section of an Internet Search or click this link:

01.   Plate Boundaries

 

The following are articles about Blasphemy. It appears that the people who are mostly opposed to Blasphemy against their religion are the followers of Islam. It is very amazing that the people who are going to worship the Antichrist, who will be empowered by the Devil/Satan will be the followers of Islam in the Middle East…


They are trying to make all the people of the world to accept their belief and have all countries to forbid any degree of blasphemy towards their religion, yet in reality, they are the ones who directly worship the Devil/Satan…

 

Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence for God, to religious or holy persons or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable (The definition of inviolable:   is something that has to be kept sacred, or that is unable to be broken or dishonored.).


Some religions consider blasphemy as a religious crime.   As of 2012, anti-blasphemy laws existed in 32 countries, while 87 nations had hate speech laws that covered defamation of religion and public expression of hate against a religious group. Anti-blasphemy laws are particularly common in Muslim-majority nations, such as those in the Middle East and North Africa, although they are also present in some Asian and European countries.


The word "blasphemy" came via Middle English blasfemen and Old French blasfemer and Late Latin blasphemare from Greek βλασφημέω, from βλάπτω "injure" and φήμη "utterance, talk, speech". From blasphemare also came Old French blasmer, from which English "blame" came. Blasphemy: 'from Gk. blasphemia "a speaking ill, impious speech, slander," from blasphemein "to speak evil of."'  

"In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Ps. 74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev. 13:1, 6; 16:9, 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1 Kings 21:10 LXX; Acts 13:45; 18:6, etc.)."


In some countries with a state religion blasphemy is outlawed under the criminal code. Such laws have led to the persecution, lynchings, murder or arrest of minorities and dissident members, after flimsy accusations.


As of 2012, 33 countries had some form of anti-blasphemy laws in their legal code. Of these, 20 were Muslim-majority nations – Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, the Maldives, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey, the UAE and the Western Sahara. The other twelve nations with anti-blasphemy laws in 2012 were Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Lebanon, Malta, the Netherlands (abolished in 2014), Nigeria, Poland and Singapore. Blasphemy was treated as a capital crime (death penalty) in many Muslim nations.


Other countries have removed the ban of blasphemy. France did so in 1881 to allow freedom of religion and freedom of the press and blasphemy was abolished or repealed in Sweden in 1970, Norway with Acts in 2009 and 2015, the Netherlands in 2014, and Iceland in 2015.


Where blasphemy is banned, it can be either some laws which directly punish religious blasphemy, or some laws that allow those who are offended by blasphemy to punish blasphemers. Those laws may condone penalties or retaliation for blasphemy under the labels of blasphemous libel, expression of opposition, or "vilification," of religion or of some religious practices, religious insult, or hate speech.


In Islamic literature, blasphemy is of many types, and there are many different words for it: sabb (insult) and shatm (abuse, vilification), takdhib or tajdif (denial), iftira (concoction), la`n or la'ana (curse) and ta`n (accuse, defame). In Islamic literature, the term blasphemy sometimes also overlaps with infidel (kufr, disbeliever), fisq (depravity), isa'ah (insult), and ridda (apostasy). There are a number of surah in Qur'an and sunnah in hadith relating to blasphemy, from which Quranic verses 5:33-34 and 33:57-61 have been most commonly used in Islamic history to justify and punish blasphemers.


  For example,

    The only punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered, or crucified, or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides, or they should be imprisoned. This shall he a disgrace for them in this world, and in the Hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement. Except those who repent before you overpower them; so know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

    — Qur'an, [Quran 5:33–34]

 

    Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment. Truly, if the Hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who stir up sedition in the City, desist not, We shall certainly stir thee up against them: Then will they not be able to stay in it as thy neighbours for any length of time: They shall have a curse on them: whenever they are found, they shall be seized and slain (without mercy).

    — Qur'an, [Quran 33:57–61]

 

A variety of actions, speeches or behavior can constitute blasphemy in Islam. Some examples include insulting or cursing Allah, or Muhammad; mockery or disagreeable behavior towards beliefs and customs common in Islam; criticism of Islam's holy personages. Apostasy, that is, the act of abandoning Islam, or finding faults or expressing doubts about Allah (ta'til) and Qur'an, rejection of Muhammed or any of his teachings, or leaving the Muslim community to become an atheist is a form of blasphemy. Questioning religious opinions (fatwa) and normative Islamic views can also be construed as blasphemous. Improper dress, drawing offensive cartoons, tearing or burning holy literature of Islam, creating or using music or painting or video or novels to mock or criticize Muhammad are some examples of blasphemous acts. In the context of those who are non-Muslims, the concept of blasphemy includes all aspects of infidelity (kufr).


In the early 21st century, blasphemy became an issue in the United Nations. The United Nations passed several resolutions which called upon the world to take action against the "defamation of religions".


The campaign for worldwide criminal penalties for the "defamation of religions" had been spearheaded by Organization of Islamic Cooperation on behalf of the United Nations' large Muslim bloc. The campaign ended in 2011 when the proposal was withdrawn in Geneva, in the Human Rights Council because of lack of support, marking an end to the effort to impose worldwide blasphemy strictures along the lines of those in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. This resolution had passed every year since 1999, in the United Nations, with declining number of "yes" votes with each successive year.


In July, 2011, the UN Human Rights Committee released a 52-paragraph statement, General Comment 34 on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 1976, concerning freedoms of opinion and expression.[75] Paragraph 48 states:

 

Prohibitions of displays of lack of respect for a religion or other belief system, including blasphemy laws, are incompatible with the Covenant, except in the specific circumstances envisaged in article 20, paragraph 2, of the Covenant. Such prohibitions must also comply with the strict requirements of article 19, paragraph 3, as well as such articles as 2, 5, 17, 18 and 26. Thus, for instance, it would be impermissible for any such laws to discriminate in favor of or against one or certain religions or belief systems, or their adherents over another or religious believers over non-believers. Nor would it be permissible for such prohibitions to be used to prevent or punish criticism of religious leaders or commentary on religious doctrine and tenets of faith.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blasphemy

 

Defamation of religion and the United Nations

Defamation of religion is an issue that was repeatedly addressed by some member states of the United Nations (UN) from 1999 until 2010. Several non-binding resolutions were voted on and accepted by the UN condemning "defamation of religion". The motions, sponsored on behalf of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), now known as the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, sought to prohibit expression that would "fuel discrimination, extremism and misperception leading to polarization and fragmentation with dangerous unintended and unforeseen consequences". Religious groups, human rights activists, free-speech activists, and several countries in the West condemned the resolutions arguing they amounted to an international blasphemy law. Critics of the resolutions including human rights groups argued that they were used to politically strengthen domestic anti-blasphemy and religious defamation laws, which are used to imprison journalists, students and other peaceful political dissidents.

 

From 2001 to 2010 there was a clear split, with the Islamic bloc and much of the developing world supporting the defamation of religion resolutions, and mostly Western democracies opposing. Support waned toward the end of the period due to increased opposition from the West along with lobbying by religious, free-speech, and human rights advocacy groups. Some countries in Africa, the Pacific, and Latin America switched from supporting to abstaining, or from abstaining to opposing.[1] The final "defamation of religions" resolution in 2010, which also condemned "the ban on the construction of minarets of mosques" four months after a Swiss referendum introduced such a ban, passed with only 20 supporting, 17 opposing, and 8 abstaining.


In 2011, with falling support for the defamation of religion approach, the OIC changed their approach and introduced a new resolution on "Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping and stigmatization of, and discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against, persons based on religion or belief" that received unanimous support. The UN Human Rights Committee followed this in July 2011 with the adoption of General Comment 34 on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 1976 that binds signatory countries. Concerning freedoms of opinion and expression, General Comment 34 made it clear that "Prohibitions of displays of lack of respect for a religion or other belief system, including blasphemy laws, are incompatible with the Covenant".


United Nations resolutions

Defamation of religion resolutions were the subject of debate by the UN from 1999 until 2010. In 2011, members of the UN Human Rights Council found compromise and replaced the “defamation of religions” resolution with Resolution 16/18, which sought to protect people rather than religions and called upon states to take concrete steps to protect religious freedom, prohibit discrimination and hate crimes, and counter offensive expression through dialogue, education, and public debate rather than the criminalization of speech. Resolution 16/18 was supported by both OIC member countries and Western countries, including the United States.


1999

In April 1999, at the urging of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Pakistan brought before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights a resolution entitled "Defamation of Islam".[7] The purpose of the resolution was to have the Commission stand up against what the OIC claimed was a campaign to defame Islam.   Some members of the Commission proposed that the resolution be changed to embrace all religions. The Commission accepted the proposal, and changed the title of the resolution to "Defamation of Religions". The resolution urged "all States, within their national legal framework, in conformity with international human rights instruments to take all appropriate measures to combat hatred, discrimination, intolerance and acts of violence, intimidation and coercion motivated by religious intolerance, including attacks on religious places, and to encourage understanding, tolerance and respect in matters relating to freedom of religion or belief". The Commission adopted the resolution without a vote.


2000 to 2005

In 2000, the CHR adopted a similar resolution without a vote.[7][8] In 2001, a vote on a resolution entitled "Combating defamation of religions as a means to promote human rights, social harmony and religious and cultural diversity" received 28 votes in favor, 15 against, and 9 abstentions.[7][9] In 2002, a vote on a resolution entitled "Combating defamation of religion" received 30 votes in favor, 15 against, and 8 abstentions.[10] In 2003, 2004, and 2005, by similar votes, the CHR approved resolutions entitled "Combating defamation of religions".


In 2005, Yemen introduced a resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions" in the General Assembly (60th Session). 101 states voted in favor of the resolution, 53 voted against, and 20 abstained.


2006

In March 2006, the CHR became the UNHRC. The UNHRC approved a resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions", and submitted it to the General Assembly. In the General Assembly, 111 member states voted in favor of the resolution, 54 voted against, and 18 abstained. Russia and China, permanent members of the UN Security Councils, voted for the Resolution.


2007

On 30 March 2007, the UNHRC adopted a resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions". The resolution called upon the High Commissioner for Human Rights to report on the activities of her office with regard to combating defamation of religions.


On 30 March 2007, the UNHRC adopted a resolution entitled "Elimination of all forms of intolerance and of discrimination based on religion or belief". The resolution called upon the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief to report on this issue for the Human Rights Council at its sixth session.


In August 2007, the Special Rapporteur, Doudou Diène, reported to the General Assembly "on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance on the manifestations of defamation of religions and in particular on the serious implications of Islamophobia on the enjoyment of all rights". Among other recommendations, the Special Rapporteur recommended that the Member States promote dialogue between cultures, civilizations, and religions taking into consideration:


    (a) The need to provide equal treatment to the combat of all forms of defamation of religions, thus avoiding hierarchization of forms of discrimination, even though their intensity may vary according to history, geography and culture;

    (b) The historical and cultural depth of all forms of defamation of religions, and therefore the need to complement legal strategies with an intellectual and ethical strategy relating to the processes, mechanisms and representations which constitute those manifestations over time;

    (e) The need to pay particular attention and vigilance to maintain a careful balance between secularism and the respect of freedom of religion. A growing anti-religious culture and rhetoric is a central source of defamation of all religions and discrimination against their believers and practitioners. In this context governments should pay a particular attention to guaranteeing and protecting the places of worship and culture of all religions.


On 4 September 2007, the High Commissioner for Human Rights reported to the UNHRC that "Enhanced cooperation and stronger political will by Member States are essential for combating defamation of religions".


On 18 December 2007, the General Assembly voted on another resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions".[19] 108 states voted in favor of the resolution; 51 voted against it; and 25 abstained.[20] The resolution required the Secretary General to report to the sixty-third session of the General Assembly on the implementation of the resolution, and to have regard for "the possible correlation between defamation of religions and the upsurge in incitement, intolerance and hatred in many parts of the world".


2008

On 27 March 2008, the UNHRC passed another resolution about the defamation of religion.

The resolution:

    10. Emphasizes that respect of religions and their protection from contempt is an essential element conducive for the exercise by all of the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion;

    11. Urges all States to ensure that all public officials, including members of law enforcement bodies, the military, civil servants and educators, in the course of their official duties, respect all religions and beliefs and do not discriminate against persons on the grounds of their religion or belief, and that all necessary and appropriate education or training is provided;

    12. Emphasizes that, as stipulated in international human rights law, everyone has the right to freedom of expression, and that the exercise of this right carries with it special duties and responsibilities, and may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but only those provided by law and necessary for the respect of the rights or reputations of others, or for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals;

    13. Reaffirms that general comment No. 15 of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in which the Committee stipulates that the prohibition of the dissemination of all ideas based upon racial superiority or hatred is compatible with the freedom of opinion and expression, is equally applicable to the question of incitement to religious hatred;

    14. Deplores the use of printed, audio-visual and electronic media, including the Internet, and of any other means to incite acts of violence, xenophobia or related intolerance and discrimination towards Islam or any religion;

    15. Invites the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance to continue to report on all manifestations of defamation of religions, and in particular on the serious implications of Islamophobia, on the enjoyment of all rights to the Council at its ninth session;

    16. Requests the High Commissioner for Human Rights to report on the implementation of the present resolution and to submit a study compiling relevant existing legislations and jurisprudence concerning defamation of and contempt for religions to the Council at its ninth session.


21 members were in favor of the resolution; 10 were opposed; 14 abstained.


2011

In early 2011, with declining support for the defamation of religion approach and at the time of the Arab Spring, which was in part due to a lack of freedom of speech, political freedoms, poor living conditions, corruption, and rising food prices, there was a real possibility that another resolution on the defamation of religion would be defeated. The OIC shifted position and opted to pursue an approach that would gain the support from both OIC and Western countries. [46] On March 24, 2011, the UN Human Rights Council in a very significant move shifted from protecting beliefs to the protection of believers with the unanimous adoption without a vote of Resolution 16/18 introduced by Pakistan.


Among its many specific points, Resolution 16/18 on Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping and stigmatization of, and discrimination, incitement to violence, and violence against persons based on religion or belief, highlights barriers to religiously tolerant societies and provides recommendations on how these barriers can be overcome. The resolution calls upon all member states to foster religious freedom and pluralism, to ensure religious minorities are properly represented, and to consider adopting measures to criminalize incitement to imminent violence based on religion or belief. Other recommendations include creating government programs to promote inter-religious tolerance and dialogue, training government employees to be sensitive toward religious sensitivities, and engaging in outreach initiatives.


At a meeting on July 15, 2011, hosted by the Organization of Islamic Cooperation at the OIC/IRCICA premises in the historic Yildiz Palace in Istanbul and co-chaired by the OIC Secretary-General H.E Prof. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and U.S. Secretary of State H.E. Mrs. Hillary Rodham Clinton, The Secretary of State of the United States, the Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs, together with foreign ministers and officials from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Senegal, Sudan, United Kingdom, the Vatican (Holy See), UN OHCHR, Arab League, African Union, gave a united impetus to the implementation of UN Human Rights Council Resolution 16/18 with the release of a Joint Statement.


  The text includes the following:

    "They called upon all relevant stakeholders throughout the world to take seriously the call for action set forth in Resolution 16/18, which contributes to strengthening the foundations of tolerance and respect for religious diversity as well as enhancing the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms around the world.


    Participants, resolved to go beyond mere rhetoric, and to reaffirm their commitment to freedom of religion or belief and freedom of expression by urging States to take effective measures, as set forth in Resolution 16/18, consistent with their obligations under international human rights law, to address and combat intolerance, discrimination, and violence based on religion or belief. The co-chairs of the meeting committed to working together with other interested countries and actors on follow up and implementation of Resolution 16/18 and to conduct further events and activities to discuss and assess implementation of the resolution."

 

United Nations

A

/HRC/RES/16/18

General Assembly

Distr.: General

12 April 2011

Original: English Human Rights Council Sixteenth session Agenda item 9 Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related form of intolerance, follow-up and implementation of the Durban Declaration andProgramme of Action Resolution adopted by the Human Rights Council


16/18

Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping and stigmatization of, and discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against, persons based on religion or belief The Human Rights Council, Reaffirming the commitment made by all States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote and encourage universal respect for and observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction as to, inter alia, religion or belief,

 

Reaffirming also the obligation of States to prohibit discrimination on the basis of religion or belief and to implement measures to guarantee the equal and effective protection of the law,


Reaffirming further that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides, inter alia, that everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief, which shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching,


Reaffirming the positive role that the exercise of the right to freedom of opinion and expression and the full respect for the freedom to seek, receive and impart information can play in strengthening democracy and combating religious intolerance,


Deeply concerned about incidents of intolerance, discrimination and violence against persons based on their religion or belief in all regions of the world,


The resolutions and decisions adopted by the Human Rights Council will be contained in the report of the Council on its sixteenth session (A/HRC/16/2), chap. I.

GE.11-12727

A/HRC/RES/16/18


Deploring any advocacy of discrimination or violence on the basis of religion or belief,


Strongly deploring all acts of violence against persons on the basis of their religion or belief, as well as any such acts directed against their homes, businesses, properties, schools, cultural centers or places of worship,


Concerned about actions that willfully exploit tensions or target individuals on the basis of their religion or belief, Noting with deep concern the instances of intolerance, discrimination and acts of violence in many parts of the world, including cases motivated by discrimination against persons belonging to religious minorities, in addition to the negative projection of the followers of religions and the enforcement of measures that specifically discriminate against persons on the basis of religion or belief,


Recognizing the valuable contribution of people of all religions or beliefs to humanity and the contribution that dialogue among religious groups can make towards an improved awareness and understanding of the common values shared by all humankind,

Recognizing also that working together to enhance implementation of existing legal regimes that protect individuals against discrimination and hate crimes, increase interfaith and intercultural efforts, and to expand human rights education are important first steps in combating incidents of intolerance, discrimination and violence against individuals on the basis of religion or belief,

1.

Expresses deep concern at the continued serious instances of derogatory stereotyping, negative profiling and stigmatization of persons based on their religion or belief, as well as programmers and agendas pursued by extremist organizations and groups aimed at creating and perpetuating negative stereotypes about religious groups, in particular when condoned by Governments;

2

. Expresses its concern that incidents of religious intolerance, discrimination and related violence, as well as of negative stereotyping of individuals on the basis of religion or belief, continue to rise around the world, and condemns, in this context, any advocacy of religious hatred against individuals that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence, and urges States to take effective measures, as set forth in the present resolution, consistent with their obligations under international human rights law, to address and combat such incidents;

3.

Condemns any advocacy of religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence, whether it involves the use of print, audio-visual or electronic media or any other means;

4.

Recognizes that the open public debate of ideas, as well as interfaith and intercultural dialogue, at the local, national and international levels can be among the best protections against religious intolerance and can play a positive role in strengthening democracy and combating religious hatred, and convinced that a continuing dialogue on these issues can help overcome existing misperceptions;

5.

Notes the speech given by Secretary-General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference at the fifteenth session of the Human Rights Council, and draws on his call on States to take the following actions to foster a domestic environment of religious tolerance, peace and respect, by: (a) Encouraging the creation of collaborative networks to build mutual understanding, promoting dialogue and inspiring constructive action towards shared policy goals and the pursuit of tangible outcomes, such as servicing projects in the fields of education, health, conflict prevention, employment, integration and media education;


2A/HRC/RES/16/18 (b) Creating an appropriate mechanism within Governments to, inter alia,

Identify and address potential areas of tension between members of different religious

Communities and assisting with conflict prevention and mediation;


(c) Encouraging training of Government officials in effective outreach strategies;

(d) Encouraging the efforts of leaders to discuss within their communities the causes of discrimination, and evolving strategies to counter these causes;

(e) Speaking out against intolerance, including advocacy of religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence;

(f)

Adopting measures to criminalize incitement to imminent violence based on religion or belief;(g) Understanding the need to combat denigration and negative religious stereotyping of persons, as well as incitement to religious hatred, by strategizing and harmonizing actions at the local, national, regional and international levels through, inter alia, education and awareness-building;

(h)

Recognizing that the open, constructive and respectful debate of ideas, as well as interfaith and intercultural dialogue at the local, national and international levels, can play a positive role in combating religious hatred, incitement and violence;

6.

Calls upon

All States: (a) To take effective measures to ensure that public functionaries in the conduct

Of their public duties do not discriminate against an individual on the basis of religion or belief;

(b) To foster religious freedom and pluralism by promoting the ability of members of all religious communities to manifest their religion, and to contribute openly and on an equal footing to society;

(c) To encourage the representation and meaningful participation of individuals, irrespective of their religion, in all sectors of society;

(d) To make a strong effort to counter religious profiling, which is understood to be the invidious use of religion as a criterion in conducting questionings, searches and other law enforcement investigative procedures;

7. Encourages States to consider providing updates on efforts made in this regard as part of ongoing reporting to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights;

8.

Calls upon States to adopt measures and policies to promote the full respect for and protection of places of worship and religious sites, cemeteries and shrines, and to take measures in cases where they are vulnerable to vandalism or destruction;

9

. Calls for strengthened international efforts to foster a global dialogue for the promotion of a culture of tolerance and peace at all levels, based on respect for human rights and diversity of religions and beliefs, and decides to convene a panel discussion on this issue at its seventeenth session, within existing resources.

46thmeeting 24 March 2011[Adopted without a vote.]

 

http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/16session/A.HRC.RES.16.18_en.pdf

 

United Nations

A

/RES/67/178

General Assembly

Distr.: General 28 March 2013 Sixty-seventh session Agenda item 69 (b)

12-48928

*1248928*

 

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2012


[On the report of the Third Committee (A/67/457/Add.2 and Corr.1)] 67/178. Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against persons, based on religion or belief


The General Assembly, Reaffirming the commitment made by all States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote and encourage universal respect for and observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction as to, inter alia, religion or belief, Reaffirming also the obligation of States to prohibit discrimination and violence on the basis of religion or belief and to implement measures to guarantee the equal and effective protection of the law,


Reaffirming further that all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated,


Reaffirming that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides, inter alia, that everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief, which shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of one’s choice and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest one’s religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching,


Reaffirming also the positive role that the exercise of the right to freedom of opinion and expression and full respect for the freedom to seek, receive and impart information can play in strengthening democracy and combating religious intolerance, and reaffirming further that the exercise of the right to freedom of expression carries with it special duties and responsibilities, in accordance with article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,


Expressing deep concern at those acts that advocate religious hatred and thereby undermine the spirit of tolerance,

_______________

1

See resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.

A/RES/67/178

Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination,

Incitement to violence and violence against persons, based on religion or belief

2/5

Reaffirming that terrorism cannot and should not be associated with any religion, nationality, civilization or ethnic group,

Reaffirming also that violence can never be an acceptable response to acts of intolerance on the basis of religion or belief,

Welcoming

Human Rights Council resolutions 16/18 of 24 March 2011and 19/25 of 23 March 2012and General Assembly resolution 66/167 of 19 December 2011,

Deeply concerned about incidents of intolerance, discrimination and violence against persons based on their religion or belief in all regions of the world,


Deploring any advocacy of discrimination or violence on the basis of religion or belief,


Strongly deploring all acts of violence against persons on the basis of their religion or belief, as well as any such acts directed against their homes, businesses, properties, schools, cultural centers or places of worship,


Strongly deploring, further, all attacks on and in religious places, sites and shrines in violation of international law, in particular human rights law and international humanitarian law, including any deliberate destruction of relics and monuments,


Concerned about actions that willfully exploit tensions or target individuals on the basis of their religion or belief,


Expressing deep concern at the instances of intolerance, discrimination and acts of violence occurring in the world, including cases motivated by discrimination against persons belonging to religious minorities, in addition to the negative projection of the followers of religions and the enforcement of measures that specifically discriminate against persons on the basis of religion or belief,


Expressing concern at the growing manifestations of intolerance based on religion or belief that can generate hatred and violence among individuals from and within different nations, which may have serious implications at the national, regional and international levels, and in this regard emphasizing the importance of respect for religious and cultural diversity, as well as interfaith and intercultural dialogue aimed at promoting a culture of tolerance and respect among individuals, societies and nations,


Recognizing the valuable contribution of people of all religions or beliefs to humanity and the contribution that dialogue among religious groups can make towards an improved awareness and understanding of the common values shared by all humankind,

Underlining the fact that States, regional organizations, non-governmental organizations, religious bodies and the media have an important role to play in promoting tolerance and respect for religious and cultural diversity and in the universal promotion and protection of human rights, including freedom of religion or belief,

_______________

2

See

Official Records of the General Assembly

, Sixty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 53

(A/66/53), chap. II,

sect. A.

3

Ibid.,

Sixty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 53

And corrigendum (A/67/53 and Corr.1), chap. III, sect. A.

Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against persons, based on religion or belief

A/RES/67/178

3/5

Underlining also the importance of raising awareness about different cultures and religions or beliefs and of education in the promotion of tolerance, which involves the acceptance by the public of and its respect for religious and cultural diversity, including with regard to religious expression, and underlining further the fact that education, in particular at school, should contribute in a meaningful way to promoting tolerance and the elimination of discrimination based on religion or belief,


Recognizing that working together to enhance the implementation of existing legal regimes that protect individuals against discrimination and hate crimes, increase interfaith and intercultural efforts and expand human rights education is an important first step in combating incidents of intolerance, discrimination and violence against individuals on the basis of religion or belief,

Welcoming the inauguration of the King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue in Vienna, established on the basis of the purposes and principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of

Human Rights and acknowledging the important role that the Centre is expected to play as a platform for the enhancement of interreligious and intercultural dialogue,


Welcoming also, in this regard, all international, regional and national initiatives aimed at promoting interreligious, intercultural and interfaith harmony and combating discrimination against individuals on the basis of religion or belief, including the launching of the Istanbul Process, and noting the recent initiative of the chairmanship of Albania of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe under the theme “United in diversity” and the holding of five regional workshops by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Austria,

Chile, Kenya, Morocco and Thailand on related issues,

1.

Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on steps taken by States to combat intolerance, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against persons, based on religion or belief;

5

2.

Expresses deep concern at the continued serious instances of derogatory stereotyping, negative profiling and stigmatization of persons based on their religion or belief, as well as programmers and agendas pursued by extremist individuals, organizations and groups aimed at creating and perpetuating negative stereotypes about religious groups, in particular when condoned by Governments;

3.

Expresses concern that the number of incidents of religious intolerance, discrimination and related violence, as well as of negative stereotyping of individuals on the basis of religion or belief, continues to rise around the world, which may have serious implications at the national, regional and international levels, condemns, in this context, any advocacy of religious hatred against individuals that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence, and urges States to take effective measures, as set forth in the present resolution and consistent with their obligations under international human rights law, to address and combat such incidents;

4.

Condemns any advocacy of religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence, whether it involves the use of print, audiovisual or electronic media or any other means;

_______________

4

Resolution 217 A (III).

5

A/67/296.

A/RES/67/178

Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against persons, based on religion or belief4/5

5.

Recognizes that the open public debate of ideas, as well as interfaith and intercultural dialogue, at the local, national and international levels can be among the best protections against religious intolerance and can play a positive role in strengthening democracy and combating religious hatred, and expresses its conviction that a continuing dialogue on these issues can help to overcome existing misperceptions;

6.

Also recognizes the strong need for global awareness about the possible serious implications of incitement to discrimination and violence, which may have serious implications at the national, regional and international levels, and urges all

Member States to make renewed efforts to develop educational systems that promote all human rights and fundamental freedoms that enhance tolerance for religious and cultural diversity, which is fundamental to promoting tolerant, peaceful and harmonious multicultural societies;

7.

Calls upon all States to take the following actions, as called for by the Secretary-General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, to foster a domestic environment of religious tolerance, peace and respect by:

(a) Encouraging the creation of collaborative networks to build mutual understanding, promoting dialogue and inspiring constructive action towards shared policy goals and the pursuit of tangible outcomes, such as servicing projects in the fields of education, health, conflict prevention, employment, integration and media education;

(b) Creating an appropriate mechanism within Governments to, inter alia, identify and address potential areas of tension between members of different religious communities, and assisting with conflict prevention and mediation;

(c) Encouraging the training of Government officials in effective outreach strategies;

(d) Encouraging the efforts of leaders to discuss within their communities

The causes of discrimination, and developing strategies to counter those causes;

(e) Speaking out against intolerance, including advocacy of religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence;

(f) Adopting measures to criminalize incitement to imminent violence based on religion or belief;

(g) Understanding the need to combat denigration and the negative religious stereotyping of persons, as well as incitement to religious hatred, by strategizing and harmonizing actions at the local, national, regional and international levels through, inter alia, education and awareness-raising;

(h) Recognizing that the open, constructive and respectful debate of ideas, as well as interfaith and intercultural dialogue at the local, national, regional and international levels, can play a positive role in combating religious hatred, incitement and violence;

8.

Also calls upon all States:

(a) To take effective measures to ensure that public functionaries, in the conduct of their public duties, do not discriminate against an individual on the basis of religion or belief;

Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination,

incitement to violence and violence against persons, based on religion or belief

A/RES/67/178

5/5

(b) To foster religious freedom and pluralism by promoting the ability of members of all religious communities to manifest their religion and to contribute openly and on an equal footing to society;

(c) To encourage the representation and meaningful participation of individuals, irrespective of their religion or belief, in all sectors of society;

(d) To make a strong effort to counter religious profiling, which is understood to be the invidious use of religion as a criterion in conducting questioning, searches and other law enforcement investigative procedures;

9.

Further calls upon all States to adopt measures and policies to promote full respect for and protection of places of worship and religious sites, cemeteries and shrines, and to take protective measures in cases where they are vulnerable to vandalism or destruction;

10.

Calls for strengthened international efforts to foster a global dialogue for the promotion of a culture of tolerance and peace at all levels, based on respect for human rights and diversity of religions and beliefs;

11.

Encourages all States to consider providing updates on efforts made in this regard as part of ongoing reporting to the Office of the United Nations High

Commissioner for Human Rights and in this respect requests the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to include those updates in her reports to the Human Rights Council;

12.

Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its sixty-eighth session a report that includes information provided by the High Commissioner on steps taken by States to combat intolerance, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against persons, based on religion or belief, as set forth in the present resolution.

60th plenary meeting

20 December 2012


From:

http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=%20A/RES/67/178